THE OLD TESTAMENT
THROUGH THE EYES OF THE APOSTLES

THE KINGS
David's Reign
Part One: The Early Years

1 Samuel 16:1-17:58

. INTRODUCTION

Whereas the NT does not dwell at great length upon David, the NT nevertheless paints him in such a way that he is truly a significant character. With the exceptions of Abraham and Moses, David becomes the most pivotal OT figure in the NT. For this reason we are going to pay significant attention to David and his relationship to Jesus.

The OT and NT both understand David's significance. The OT devotes 40 chapters to the story of David alone (1 Samuel 16-31 and 2 Samuel 1-24, not counting the duplicate chapters in the Chronicles). With regards to the NT, it first emphasizes that Jesus descended from David, both legally on Joseph's side and physically on Mary's side of the family.

Second, when Matthew introduces the list of Jesus' ancestors, Matthew singles 2 of Jesus' ancestors: Jesus was "the son of ______________, the son of Abraham" (Matt. 1:1).

To appreciate the relationship between David and Jesus, think about the city of Jesus' birth. Why was it so significant that Jesus was born there? What does the angel specifically call Bethlehem (Luke 2:11)?

A blind man calls out to Jesus who does not respond. Jesus responds positively to the blind man after the blind man repeatedly calls Him what (Mark 10:47, 48)?

During Jesus' debates with the Jewish religious leaders, He concludes the debates with a discussion on David's Son. The Jews believed that David's son, the future Messiah, though great was still lesser than David. Jesus argues that David's Son is actually greater than David because David himself wrote: "The Lord [God] said to my lord [the Messiah, David's son]." In other words, David is calling his son "lord," thereby implying that David's son was greater than David (Matt. 22:41-46).

What title did the early church apply to David: "who by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of our _____________ David Thy Servant (Acts 4:25)?


THE 1 SAMUEL ACCOUNT

Samuel Anoints David To Be King (1 Sam. 16:1-23)

Disaster has struck Israel with the reign of Saul. The Israelites had wanted to be like the other nations (pagan), and so God gave them the kind of king who would be like the kings of others nations. Just like the kings of other nations didn't care one whit about God, so God gave Israel a king who didn't care about Him. Because of Saul's disobedience Israel will suffer mercilessly at the hands of the Philistines during the reign of Saul.

God chooses to dispense not only with Saul but also with his entire household. Saul's descendants will NOT reign upon the throne of Israel. God is going to look now for another kind of leader. What characteristics was God most interested in for His new king (13:14)?

With the ascension of David to the throne of Israel, for the next 80 years Israel will experience a golden age still unmatched in her history. The primary credit goes to David, a man after God's own heart.

God instructs Samuel to quit grieving for Saul and go to the house of Jesse from Bethlehem in order to anoint one of his sons to be the next king of Israel.

When Samuel enters the house of Jesse, he asks Jesse to parade his sons before him. When Samuel sees Eliab, he starts to make the same mistake he made earlier with Saul. What mistake was that (16:6-7)?

After going through seven of Jesse's son, Samuel asks if these are all Jesse's sons. When Jesse tells Samuel that he has one son left who is tending the flocks, Samuel has Jesse send for David. David now arrives from tending the flocks. How does 1 Samuel 16:12 describe David?

This seems to contradict the earlier verse. Yet whereas beauty does not qualify a person to be God's servant, it doesn't disqualify him either. You don't have to be rich to be used by God; however, poverty doesn't qualify you either. The same applies to education, community status, family heritage, etc. The heart is what matters irregardless of any physical qualifications.

Upon the Lord's instructions Samuel anoints David to be the next king over Israel. What significant characteristic is true about David from this time on (16:13)?


The evidence that the Spirit of the Lord is upon David is seen in the next section (16:14-23). What happens in these verses which shows that David is truly anointed with God's Spirit?



David and Goliath (1 Sam. 17:1-58)

The next story conjures up memories of first grade Sunday School. From the earliest times we have heard this story. For many Christians it is so associated with childhood that they almost treat it as a fairy tale. Yet its significance and impact is seen in that it occupies no less that FIFTY EIGHT VERSES. It is one of the longest continuous stories in the entire Bible. It is that significant. It proves that David IS the Anointed One, the Messiah.

The Philistines have continued to harass Israel. The Philistine and Israelite sarmies converge at Socoh. The 2 armies are situated on 2 hills with the valley of Elah separating them. A battle does not ensue. What happens instead (17:4-10)?

No one dares to face Goliath. First Samuel describes him as being 9'6" tall. He is so big and powerful that his spear is basically the size of a weaver's beam. How does the Israelite army respond to Goliath's challenge (17:11)?

This situation continues for at least 40 days with no resolution. (This is another instance of a period of 40 days being significant in Scripture.)

At this point David shows up. Because David's 3 older brothers are serving in the war, Jesse sends David to the front to supply them with provisions. When David arrives, he hears Goliath's taunts and asks about the situation. When his brothers hear David asks these questions, how do they respond (17:28)?

How does David respond to their rebuke (17:29-30)?

Goliath is making a fatal mistake whenever he taunts Israel's army. According to 1 Sam. 17:36 whose army is he really attacking?

We really need to keep this in mind whenever we start criticizing the church. Some people really love to adopt a superior attitude towards the church, always calling it "dead" or "just a bunch of hypocrites." Whereas it is true that the church is full of hypocrites, what else is true about the church (2 Cor. 11:2)?

When it is all said and done, the bride walking down the aisle may not be the prettiest thing ever to have graced the earth; just don't tell the groom you feel that way. When it is all said and done, the only person's opinion about that bride which matters is the groom's. Well, your view of the church doesn't matter and my view doesn't matter. The groom's, Jesus', matters. As much as a human man may love his bride, Jesus loves His bride even more. If you want to mess with a hostile groom, mess with the church.

Look at some other ways the Bible views people: What is true about the people you criticize (James 3:9)? When you criticize these people, you are actually criticizing whom?

What does God call Christians in 1 John 3:1-2?

It would be well that you remember these things whenever you encounter another person. If you want to live in God's favor, treat His children with love and respect. As a father I can attest to you that this works. There are certain couples in our church who are very dear to me because of the way they have treated my son and daughter. They even treated Molly good whenever her wardrobe was flashy and gaudy. I will always appreciate Karen Fishero the day Molly walked up the sidewalk to the church dressed in black leotards and black top, with bright pink and red accessories (she was only 2 1/2 at the time). Karen said: "Molly, you look so pretty." Molly was floating on cloud nine after that remark. Well, as much as like other adults to treat our children with kindness, much more does our heavenly Father love it when we treat His children with love and kindness.

When David asserts that he is willing to take on Goliath, he is escorted to Saul. When Saul expresses uncertainty about David's ability to take down Goliath, how does David respond? In other words what is the basis for David's confidence that he will beat Goliath (17:34-37)?

Always remember that God's faithfulness in the past guarantees His faithfulness in the present and in the future. God has not helped us in the past only to abandon us at the present time. He is consistent. He may not come through at the time you want Him to come through. He may come through in a different way than you wanted Him to; however, He will come through, and when He does, He will do it in a way that is perfect for you.

How does Saul prepare David for battle and what is David's response (17:38-40)?

God does not want David to become something he is not in order to defeat Goliath. Remember that when it is all said and done David is not the one who will be fighting Goliath. God is the One who will be fighting and is the One who will be gaining the victory.

What weapon(s) does David use in order to defeat Goliath (17:40)?

We read that Goliath was from Gath, one of the 5 major cities of the Philistines. According to some David chose 5 stones because each of these 5 cities had a giant within them who needed to be killed. These claim that after David killed Goliath, he was going to take on the other 4 giants. I don't know if it is true, but it sure sounds good.

Note that God can use anything if he can use a slingshot to kill the giant. If God can use 5 loaves of barley bread and 2 fish to feed 5000, He can use anything we have in order to do great things. God does not need you to have great weapons in order to defeat the enemy. All He needs is you. God doesn't need the prayers of a great prayer warrior to protect your family; He needs YOUR prayers. God does not need the teachings of the greatest biblical scholar to draw your family to Jesus; He needs YOUR teachings. All God needs is you.

I know that some of you are thinking, "But He is God and therefore doesn't NEED anybody." That is true. The only thing is that God has set up this world in such a way that He works THROUGH people. As a result, when He wants to work upon your family, He will work THROUGH the dad or mom. If God wants to move upon your community, He will work THROUGH you who are Christians.

Goliath cannot believe his eyes when he sees David approaching: "Am I a dog that you would come to me with sticks" (17:43). What is David's response (17:45-47)?


David places a stone in his sling and hits Goliath on the forehead. It either kills Goliath or stuns him so badly he faints. Whatever happened, David rushes up, takes Goliath's sword, and does what (17:51)?

The Philistines are so stunned, that they rush away in a panic with the Israelites pursuing them. A great slaughter ensues that day because of David's victory over Goliath.